Press Release – Justice in Papua
Law UU No. 21 year 2001 (UU. No. 21/2001) about Special Autonomy for Provinsi Papua given. Gift UU Otsus that is as Indonesia government answer towards the hoisterous of independence demand, marked with venus bunting or Bintang Kejora Flag at several …Report in West Papua-Indonesia
Special Autonomy (Otsus) Fail: Papua Necessary Independent
by Fr. Santon Tekege, Pr
Law UU No. 21 year 2001 (UU. No. 21/2001) about Special Autonomy for Provinsi Papua given. Gift UU Otsus that is as Indonesia government answer towards the hoisterous of independence demand, marked with venus bunting or Bintang Kejora Flag at several regencies at Papua since year 1998. Demand reason, follow government, caused by development wisdom failure (Theo Van Den Broek, et al: 2003: 164) so that Otsus given as answer to finish conflict Papua. But, True that government evaluation? One of the best road to finishes all conflicts at soil Papua pass road: Dialogue between Indonesia and Papua.
In this article me wants reflections how far problem at Papua caused by development failure? Is it possible that there problem other more fundamentiel than development failure?What Otsus answer problem Papua or on the contrary? How does solution necessary taken in finish conflict Papua. This questions will be our discussion focus here.
Otsus Fail: Violence Then Happen At Papua
” Offer kernel Otsus for Provinsi Papua” , write theo et al, ” created from official opinion that blooms and publication by government official circle that problem at Papua take root from fail it development wisdom at area” (ibid, 164). Besides Otsus also given as conception on appearance demontration and venus bunting at various regency at Papua during 1998. Offer otsus to Provinsi Papua also be based on government opinion not may be disturbed to accuse, that is Papua be integral part from republic of Indonesia unity state (NKRI). Inspiration other from offer Otsus be national wisdom that must operative for all Provinsi in Indonesia. All this be brainchild base from gift Otsus to Provinsi Papua.
Intention good goverment` to give Otsus to Provinsi Papua be matter very positive. But for me wrong if Otsus given just for finish conflict Papua meredusir as development failure. Government evaluates that that conflict at Papua come from development failure. Thereby the logic because development failure, original person Papua demands independence, marked with venus bunting or Bintang Kejora Flag? This government evaluation is appear with very clear when UU Otsus implementated at Papua.
For me, UU Otsus apparently identical with money. Otsus money, so that almost every year fund trilyunan rupiah take autside to Papua. Society always enthusiastic get fund liquefaction Otsus. Fund Otsus that given that is the total by dozens. For example, fund estimation Otsus from year 2002 up to 2007 each; 1,2 quintillion (2000, 1,3 quintillion (2003, 1,4 quintillion (2004, 1,5 quintillion (2005, 1,7 quintillion (2006 and 3,2 quintillion (2007). So full scale fund estimation Otsus to Papua since year 2000 up to 2007 as much as 10,3 quintillion. (data source: diocese bulletin manokwari-sorong no. 33/september 2007, matter 42; see also footnote from article bisei: 2007: 18-19). Fund so much this is not yet counted with fund estimation Otsus year 2008 and 2009. Fund quantity that given to Provinsi Papua and Papua West looked at as efforts to prosperous original person Papua development failure consequence above. In short because development failure, fund Otsus must more many be given to properous original person Papua.
although problem at Papua caused by development failure, Otsus self not success properous original person Papua. The real since Otsus operative, society economy growth exactly decreased dratis when compared with economy growth before Otsus. Follow LIPI economy growth year 1995,1996,1997,1998 achieve 20,18%, 13,87% 7,42% and 12,72%; while economy growth after Otsus implementation in the year 2002, 2003 2004, only achieve 8,7%, 2,96% and 0,53%. (widjojo: 2009: 14).
While fund Otsus take aut side to Papua very tall not yet counted money processer institutions non-goverment and PT, CV, and project big. But the real poverty very tall at Papua. Poverty level very tall this is by bisei called as absolute poverty and extreme. Has absolute because main matters (basic needs) that is wanted for alive continuance almost insatiable. The example happens hunger disaster at several regencies at Papua like Tolikara, Yahukimo, Jayawijya, Puncak Jaya and Paniai. Well-being obsolence that evoke various disease that sufferred people and mortality rate enough tall. Has extreme because people backwardness Papua in the case of process low erudition consequence technology, illiterate number height, limited craft and minimum skill. To cultivate batural resources, only use muscle energy and erudition existencial that bequeathed to them (bisei: 2007: 18). therefore actually poverty at Papua has absolute and extreme this be a repression form people curb Papua to out from alive condition bad more and hence demote degree and people dignity Papua to points inhuman (ibid).
So if conflict at Papua only reduced into development failure, so Otsus clearly fail prosperous original person Papua. When Otsus fail prosperous original person Papua, so independence demand never finished, because they are not yet prosperous. finally conflict even also will not ever finished Independence demand and venus bunting or Bintang Kejora Flag even also will not stop.
But for me conflict at Papua bot merely caused by development failure, although development failure is one of them. Conflict at Papua more in history problem and nation identity Papua. Integration history problem and nation identity is problem base that push incidence efforts for independent. So when central government can finish integration history problem and nation identity Papua, so independence demand Papua may be can reduced even not again happen. Formulators UU Otsus doesn’t pay attention this fundamental problem. They estimate that conflict at Papua caused by development failure and ignore fundamental side from conflict Papua.
This matter is proved that is in a period of execution UU Otsus even also, violence towards people Papua happen. Violence wasior 2003 that sacrifice 4 person and case wamena 2005 killed 9 person be conflict root strong proofs at Papua. Besides almost every moment we hear, see and read in also newspaper that happen violence action is done by country security side to original person Papua.
violence that undergone by people Papua since Papua integrations with NKRI for 1 may 1963 also be form other potential conflict at Papua. Military operation from year 1965-1969; 1969,1977; 1981-1985; and continued year 2003-2005. (bdk neles tebay: 2008; 133; 2009: ) all this is actually show about problem root at Papua. Country politics consequence violence towards people Papua causes then demand existence for independent and venus bunting or Bintang Kejora flag.
Bot merely country politics consequence violence, but also appreciation undercommunication on original person dignity Papua passes ekspesi their culture. Culture cultural factor very spirit original person life Papua. Prohibit them to not indicating their localism simbols, mean doesn’t appreciate them. A peace activist at Papua in a discussion about ham, he commented ” Indonesia government doesn’t want to pay attention brothers Papua but gold Papua”. Mean willing to energeticing person Papua less cared by Indonesia government, but that need from Papua gold or wealth treasure. In short person dignity Papua as cultured human by government, important for government gold and the nature wealth.
Appreciation undercommunication towards original person dignity Papua is seen clear with prohibition existence to doesn’t use symbols, localism simbols that aim in wholeness threat NKRI. Bintang Kejora flag symbol in bags (nokeng), clothes, hat, be one of the rumors example that evaluated to threaten wholeness NKRI. Besides almost at all government offices and project PT, CV, and project big private is dominated by person non-Papua. Original member Papua only stands as onlooker because they are incapable of compete with outsider member. At economy area, outsider member superiorer than original member Papua. One of the example concret seed in market Youtefa where most of all store and commodity place is occupied by outsider member, temporary mammas or mothers original Papua only commodity above of land. They also many commodity at figure veranda or ruko. This fact shows attitude existence marginalisasi on original person Papua. Attitude marginalition this supported by Indonesia government passes transmigration program that import many people from outside Papua. (bdk bless: 2001: 40). Autsider class arrival will causes attitude existence feel inferior from original person so that they will be shifted to city hem. So key problem at Papua bot merely lay in development failure but also integration history and nation identity with marginalisasi original person Papua. Thereby inferential that Otsus fail to finish conflict Papua. Failure Otsus in finish conflict Papua, for me, be real proof that Papua necessary independent.
Papua Necessary Independent
Purpose Papua necessary independent doesn’t mean quit of republic of Indonesia unity state (NKRI). Papua necessary independent because Otsus given free to provinsi Papua, but problem at Papua still then happen. Problem then happen to show existence `not neat` in execution UU Otsus so that Otsus called to fail. `Not Neat` in execution Otsus caused by not yet perception sameness existence between Indonesia government and original person Papua in finishes conflict Papua and honour undercommunication towards dignity humanis person Papua. Two matters fundamentalis this is not yet payed seriously so that Otsus given but doesn’t finish problem.
First: Not yet perception sameness existence between Indonesia government and original person Papua in finishes conflict Papua. Indonesia government estimate that conflict at Papua can be overcome to pass to approach security. Therefore during Papua berintegrasi with NKRI happen military operation on a large scale at Papua. At least found twenty operation military at Papua since 1 may 1963 up to now.
Aware operation is first operation that is begun year 1965 and two year then. Second operation is called operation Brathayuda year 1967 and gulp victim around 3.500 person. Third operation is called Authority operation that done since year 1969 and gulp soul victim around 30.000 soul between year 1963-1969.
Operation fourth carried out at regency Jayawijaya year 1977dan cause 12.397 member Papua pass away. Operation fifth known as operation sweeps me I and II year 1981, gulp soul victim at least 1.000 person at regency Jayapura and 2.500 person at regency Paniai. Year 1982, happen sixth operation that is known operation looks me I and II, causes killed thousands soul. Operation puts to be operation seventh and go on between year 1983-1984.
Year 1985 happen again operation sweeps that known as eight operation. in eight operation at least 517 souls kills by TNI and burnt around 200 houses. Binth operation is done at Mapnduma year 1996, causes 35 person Papua pass away, 14 womans is raped, 13 churches is botched and 166 houses burnt, temporary 123 civil members dieds disease consequence and hunger after resque self into forest.
Year 1998 Papua west as military operation region (DOM) is pulled by Indonesia but chase towards class separatist Papua continued. Therefore operation tenth done year 2001 at regency Manokwari and causes 4 person kill, 6 person experience torturings, 1 woman is raped and 5 person lost.
Between April until November 2003 happen again operation at Wamena. Operation at Wamena this be operation eleven. at that moment army dominates entire areas, retard church group access and humanity worker to give aid during go on it operation. finally 9 person pass away, 38 person experience torturings and 15 person caught without clear reasons.
Year 2004 happen operation twelf at glorious top regency that causess 6.000 from 27 villages resques self to forest, and 35 between belong 13 childrens dieds at evacuation champ that built there. Entire closed regions to humanity workers (Tebay, 2005: 5-6).
Here appear clearly that conflict completion Papua pass to approach security never finish conflict even problem increase. But Indonesia government opinion that conflict at Papua when does class separatist been spent. Therefore aim from operation that done by military remove original person Papua that is assumed separatist by Indonesia government (ibid, 6).
Perception a kind of this is never import peacefulness for original person Papua. Because it society permanent will look at government as colonialist and murderer. In short, existence a original member fear to juxtaposes self with government manifestasi pass military. Finally government goodwill to powering original person is not responsived positive. Original member will look at government goodwill as efforts to will spend them. One of the example concret Special Autonomy (Otsus). Since Otsus given to Provinsi Papua, happen pro-dan contra between original member Papua self. Most of original member frowns on “Intention good government itu”. For member, Otsus only a kind of “politicies candy” Indonesia government, to go away member from problem base at Papua.
from original member side, existence a kind of unbelief towards government. When does government cope to prosperous member, member looks at `intention good government it` as efforts go away them from various suffering memory in the past. Member always gaze at each other negative towards government is succumbed government wants to help them. Society negative idea will start from experience suffering whom they are natural and feel during through years. Therefore bo wonder when is member unanimous to return Otsus to Indonesia government.
Therefore for me, must perception sameness existence between Indonesia government and original member Papua. One of the form concret to build perception similarity that is pass dialog. Essay book Dr. Neles Tebay “Dialog Jakarta-Papua: A Perspective Papua” be one of the solution up at that. In short, must dialog existence Jakarta and Papua so that detect categorically what problem fundamentalis that at Papua. Thereby problem at Papua be finished well, fair, democratic and prestigious.
Second, if dialogue has been begun, so must honour existence towards person humanity dignity Papua. Person humanity dignity Papua during through years trampled with military operation existence above. Will realize of this thing, government offereds Special Autonomy for Papua to also respect level and their dignity. But during UU Otsus carried out, violence towards original member Papua even also still not desists. UU Otsus carried out with validly in the year 2002 but in the year 2003 happen violence at Wasior and year 2005 at Wamena. Case Wasior 2003 killed 4 person and case Wamena 2005 killed 9 person. This fact is braced again with existence various violence kind, intimindasi, terorism that in all the years used UU Otsus.
Attitude likes this show existence not honour towards human dignity. Level and human dignity because policies reason can be treated unjustly and human. That side can do action without considering towards weak side. Therefore attitude respects and appreciate another person humanity dignity necessary respected.
Attitude respects and appreciate bot merely to human merely, but also their culture. problem that appear very often caused by appreciation undercommunication on their culture value. Custom value before now regulate coexistence, so that everything ambulatory fluent and good alive preservation each self also well guaranted group (broek, 2006: 8). But now all change. Society culture value has been replaced with government nationalism wish. Struggle for example MRP (People Assembly Papua) to make Bintang Kejora flag and bird simbol mambruk be flag and person culture simbol Papua received by pp no. 37/2007 that prohibit separatist simbols use as culture simbols and region (widjojo, 2009: 32).
Thereby, when does perception sameness existence between Indonesia government and original member Papua passes a peace dialog and honour, appreciation, towards human and their culture, problem at Papua can be finished well, fair, democratic and prestigious. To equate perception between Indonesia and Papua pass road: Dialogue Indonesia and West Papua.